The dialectical relationship between the most fier

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On the dialectical relationship between the image system and the form following the function of the instrument

"what has been done must be done again; what has been done must be done again; under the sun, there is nothing new."-- Engels pointed out in the Bible that "in the various forms of Greek philosophy, metal pendulum impact testing machines produced are sold at home and abroad, and almost all the embryos and sprouts of future views can be found." This generalization is also suitable for the historical development of Chinese traditional creation design thought. Many viewpoints and original forms of contemporary western design ideas can be found in the rich classical literature in China. For example, what the Chinese call the "device to image system" is that the optimization of the end energy structure of the western "form follows function" in the early 20th century gave birth to an upsurge of investment in the fields of oil and gas, wind power, photovoltaic and nuclear power? Today, while studying the design thought of ancient creation, we are bound to compare and reflect on some propositions in the design theory imported from the West. (for example, the relationship between form and function, and see the similarities and differences in essence.)

when people design and produce products, there are two minimum requirements or their products must have two basic features: one is the function of marking product attributes; The second is the form of being a product. Function is the value of its use, which is the most fundamental attribute of a product as a useful thing. The idea of emphasizing function in design is not unique to modern people. As early as the beginning of human creation, this idea has become the basic idea of design. ①

I. The Origin of the image based device system

"the image based device system" comes from fanzhongyan () of the Northern Song Dynasty, a famous saying praising the waterwheel: "the image based device system, and the water based on the wheel economy". ② that is to say, if people want to achieve the purpose of water lifting irrigation, this device (water lifting function) must be realized by attaching an image form, that is, the function must be carried by form ("image based device"). Fanzhongyan here believes that the shape of the trolley represents its structure, and the structure of this utensil must be attached to the shape of "image" in order to complete its water lifting function. The last four words say that the water can achieve the purpose of irrigation and agriculture through the operation of the water wheel - "turn this big water wheel to save you from drought and suffering"

long before the fan family, Li Shan of the Tang Dynasty said in the notes to selected works of Li Shan that "images are also images". The original meaning of elephant originally refers specifically to an animal. Shuowen said: "elephant, a big animal in Nanyue, has a long nose and teeth, and a breast every three years.". So why use images to express objects and images? "Hanfeizi Jielao" says: "people want to see the image of their life, but get the bone of the image of death, and write their pictures to think about their life. Therefore, all people think of it as an image." This shows that in the pre Qin period, elephant has changed from the special name of animal elephant to a commonly used concept of imaginary things. ④ "Yi Zhuan" says that "the sage has the knowledge to see the world, and it is called" image "by imitating its description. It is like the appropriate things." this is the meaning of "observing things and taking images". Nowadays, "observing things and taking images" is regarded as an aesthetic law by the aesthetic circle, which refers to imitating and simulating the appearance of nature for artistic creation. The "image" here mostly represents specific images and features. Lao Tzu: "the great instrument is late... The great form Is beyond shape is invisible" all means this. "Observing objects and taking images" is extended to the field of creation design, which is "image-based device". According to the "tie Ci" in the notes of Zheng Kangcheng in the book of changes, "those who make utensils still cherish their images. If they are stored in utensils, images can be obtained." "History of the road · afterword I" also says that "words are the only words, and tools are the only images." It can be seen that the utensils used everywhere in the daily life of the ancestors in ancient society were obtained by "making utensils according to images", and advocated to convey people's thoughts and ideas in the form of "images" of utensils

so far, it is not difficult for us to understand that in fanzhongyan's "device based image system", image refers to image and form, while device can be extended to device use and function. "Implement to image system" is the design criterion of artificial things created by people to meet the needs of production and life under the small-scale peasant economy

II. Background of the slogan "form follows function"

in the 19th century, Chicago School architect Sullivan clearly put forward the viewpoint of "form follows function", which is the symbolic slogan of functionalists. The Chicago school came into being in the 1870s. In 1871, a fire broke out in Chicago, destroying two-thirds of the urban buildings. In order to build more residential, office and commercial buildings in a limited time and area, skyscrapers with high-rise frames such as steel structures appeared. Due to the structural functional requirements of new materials such as steel, a concise and lively architectural style gradually formed in Chicago, from which the Chicago school came into being. This is the historical background for Sullivan to put forward the above slogan

it should be said that "form follows function" itself is the initial problem that reflects the current situation and the design of creation, just like "the system of objects with images". However, once its slogan is used by functionalism, it will lose its good intention of existence and be regarded as an extreme and outdated slogan

III. how to treat the dialectical relationship between the two

from the perspective of the essential characteristics of product design, it is correct and basic for form to obey function. As objects and buildings used for people, their form must come from the structure of function, not from the form of function. It can be seen that the ancient philosophers of our country have long given a more reasonable design standard in dealing with the relationship between function and form, that is, "the image carries the device, and the device uses the image system". Therefore, in design, the idea of focusing on function is not unique to modern western people. As early as the beginning of human creation, this idea has become the basic idea of design. For example, Mozi advocated "quality before text", which is the viewpoint of function first; Called the "great designer" by the British encyclopedia, Confucius advocated "both text and quality", that is, the unity of content and form. In the field of creation, it can be extended to the judgment idea of which part of the function and form is equally important fails. This point coincides with the slogan of "new unity of art and technology" emphasized by Bauhaus after Sullivan's "form follows function"

function must be expressed through the carrier of form, that is, through specific images and reasonable forms. The unity of function and form constitutes the basic category of functional beauty of man-made things. Because the rational functional form is a good form, it is also a form of functional beauty in the eyes of the ancient Chinese. Relying on the social background of agricultural culture, especially the many advantages formed by the geographical environment, many designed objects have positive functional use value, often the role is greater than the form, and the function is subject to the need. Therefore, fanzhongyan, who is "worried about the future and happy about the future", appreciates the waterwheel mainly from the perspective of the efficiency of the waterwheel irrigation for the people, praising and lamenting the beauty of its form. Therefore, it is a typical principle of functional aesthetics that the device follows the function with image system and form. Both of them focus on the function, but they also affirm the importance of form, because it refracts the external attributes of function, so it can be said to be the secondary imaging of the external attributes of function. The "image system" in the "device based image system" is an image of the internal factors of the function, that is, the internal refinement of the principle, structure, material, process, shape, color, etc. of the "device". As the means and means of realizing the material device, the "image" is in the central position of the inheritance relationship among the device, image and environment

"making objects with images" is the creation principle of traditional hand-made instruments in the Chinese agricultural era, and "form follows function" is the ideological trend of modern design in the western industrial era. The problems elaborated by the two have a positive and significant historical significance for the traditional thought of appliance use, the meaning of life and even the mode of production, and many problems related to product design, such as the relationship between function and form, the relationship between aesthetics and concept, the visual psychology of design, and so on. In particular, the idea of "making utensils with images" links "utensils, images and systems" together. They have a close internal connection due to the needs of human production and life, showing the essence of the ancient creation and craftsmanship, and revealing the Chinese tradition of paying attention to practical results. In essence, there is no big difference between the Northern Song Dynasty's "implement follows function by image" and the western modern "form follows function", but they convey a common meaning, that is, function and implement are expressed by image or form, and implement (function) is restricted or regulated by image (form), and their combination can complete the realization of human needs (things). This is what Mr. Liu Guanzhong often said about the truth of rationalism: functions and forms are generated around human things (needs, contradictions, etc.), and the interpretation of their relationship is the perfection of rationalism


① liyanzu: on the "Three Beauties" in design aesthetics, Journal of Yellow River University of science and technology, 2003, issue 1, page 60

② (Northern Song Dynasty) fanzhongyan: Fan Wenzheng Gongji volume 20, Qing Dynasty engraving version

③ the language comes from zhangxiaoxiang of Southern Song Dynasty, "Hu Xiang excites BS EN 357:2000 fire-proof glass water with bamboo cart · rice like cloud · book this Nengren courtyard wall". See (Southern Song Dynasty) zhangxiaoxiang: Yu Hu Wenji volume IV, Four series

④ Zhang Hao: on "elephant", Journal of Jianghan University, 1994, issue 5, page

(Wu Wei, director and associate professor of packaging design technology center of Zhongbao head office, Grade 2001 doctor of design art, Academy of fine arts, Tsinghua University) (end)

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